PBS NewsHour Weekend full episode February 16, 2020


>>Sreenivasan: ON THIS EDITION FOR SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 16: THE DEMOCRATIC CANDIDATES TURN TO NEVADA AHEAD OF THE UPCOMING CAUCUSES. IN OUR SIGNATURE SEGMENT: A LOOK BACK AT THE HISTORIC BALDWIN BUCKLEY DEBATE. AND COMBATING DROUGHT: FROM FARM TO KEG. NEXT ON “PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND.”>>PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND IS MADEPOSSIBLE BY:BERNARD AND IRENE SCHWARTZ.SUE AND EDGAR WACHENHEIM III.THE CHERYL AND PHILIP MILSTEINFAMILY.ROSALIND P. WALTER.BARBARA HOPE ZUCKERBERG.CHARLES ROSENBLUM.WE TRY TO LIVE IN THE MOMENT,TO NOT MISS WHAT’S RIGHT INFRONT OF US.AT MUTUAL OF AMERICA, WEBELIEVE TAKING CARE OF TOMORROWCAN HELP YOU MAKE THE MOST OFTODAY.MUTUAL OF AMERICA FINANCIALGROUP, RETIREMENT SERVICES ANDINVESTMENTS.>>WHEN IT COMES TO WIRELESS, CONSUMER CELLULAR GIVES ITS CUSTOMERS THE CHOICE. OUR NO-CONTRACT PLANS GIVE YOU AS MUCH OR AS LITTLE TALK, TEXT AND DATA AS YOU WANT. AND OUR U.S.-BASED CUSTOMER SERVICE TEAM IS ON-HAND TO HELP. TO LEARN MORE, GO TO www.consumercellular.tv.ADDITIONAL SUPPORT HAS BEENPROVIDED BY:AND BY THE CORPORATION FORPUBLIC BROADCASTING, A PRIVATECORPORATION FUNDED BY THEAMERICAN PEOPLE.AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOURPBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKEYOU.THANK YOU.FROM THE TISCH WNET STUDIOS ATLINCOLN CENTER IN NEW YORK,HARI SREENIVASAN.>>Sreenivasan: GOOD EVENING AND THANKS FOR JOINING US. DEMOCRATS IN NEVADA ARE LINING UP FOR A SECOND DAY OF EARLY VOTING IN NEXT SATURDAY’S CAUCUSES. IT’S A FIRST-EVER TRY AT EARLY VOTING IN THE SILVER STATE’S CAUCUSES. YESTERDAY THERE WERE SOME LONG LINES AND CONFUSION ABOUT RULES. OFFICIALS AT SOME SITES ABANDONED A GOOGLE SIGN IN SHEET PROCESS WHEN IT WAS TAKING TOO LONG, REVERTING TO PAPER. A DEMOCRATIC PARTY OFFICIAL SAID HIGH TURNOUT CONTRIBUTED TO SOME OF THE DELAYS ON THE FIRST OF THE FOUR DAYS OF EARLY VOTING. FOR MORE ON HOW THE EARLY VOTING IS WORKING TODAY AND WHAT’S AHEAD, MEGAN MESSERLY, A REPORTER FOR THE “NEVADA INDEPENDENT” JOINS US NOW FROM LAS VEGAS. SO, WHY THE LONG LINES YESTERDAY? WHAT’S HAPPENING TODAY?>>RIGHT. SO, EARLY VOTING KICKED OFF YESTERDAY. MORE THAN 11,800 WAS THE ESTIMATE THAT THE PARTY GAVE TO US OF FOLKS THAT TURNED OUT AS OF 5:00 P.M. TURNOUT WAS REALLY HIGH, SO THAT CONTRIBUTED TO THE LONG LINES AS WELL. DEMOCRATS WERE PLANNING ON USING THIS GOOGLE FORM-BASED CHECK IN SHEET AS PART OF THE CHECK IN PROCESS. THAT WAS SUPPOSED TO STREAMLINE THE DATA COLLECTION ON THE BACKEND. THAT WAS TAKING A LONG TIME. SO SOME OF THE SITES THAT EXPERIENCED THE LONGEST LINES WHERE FOLKS WERE WAITING 3-4 HOURS DECIDED TO ACTUALLY FOREGO THAT STEP OF THE PROCESS, AND THAT ENDED UP SPEEDING THINGS UP A LITTLE BIT YESTERDAY.>>Sreenivasan: BUT WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THEY GET IN THERE? THIS IS ALMOST LIKE THE RANK CHOICE SYSTEM THAT MAINE IS TRYING. WHAT ARE THEY ACTUALLY WRITING DOWN?>>THAT’S CORRECT. SO, ESSENTIALLY, WHAT DEMOCRATS DO WHEN THEY SHOW UP TO AN EARLY VOTE SITE, THEY CHECK IN, THEIR VOTER REGISTRATION IS CHECKED AGAINST COUNTY VOTER ROLL. IF THEY’RE NOT REGISTERED, THEY HAVE SAME DAY REGISTRATION, SO THEY CAN ACTUALLY JUST REGISTER ON SITE. ONCE THEY DO THAT, THEY RECEIVE A PAPER SCANNABLE BALLOT. IT’S KIND OF LIKE A SCANTRON FORM WHERE YOU BUBBLE IN YOUR ANSWERS. YOU HAVE TO CHOOSE AT LEAST THREE PREFERENCES, UP TO FIVE. THE PARTY SAYS IT WILL BE SCANNING IN THIS INFORMATION INTO A CLOUD-BASED SYSTEM AND THEN, YES, DISTRIBUTED TO THEIR HOME PRECINCT SO THAT THEIR VOTES WILL BE COUNTED JUST AS IF THEY HAD BEEN THERE IN PERSON. AND THAT’S HOW THEY WILL OBTAIN THAT DATA ON THE ACTUAL DAY OF THE CAUCUS TO BRING IN THAT EARLY VOTE INFORMATION.>>Sreenivasan: OKAY, EVERYONE’S BECOMING KIND OF A SIDELINE GEEK HERE AND TRYING TO FIGURE OUT WHAT’S THE APP THEY’RE USING, WHAT’S HAPPENING, IS THE TECHNOLOGY HACKER PROOF, ET CETERA. WHAT ARE THE KIND OF STEPS THAT THE LOCAL D.N.C. OR THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY IS TAKING?>>RIGHT, SO PARTY OFFICIALS HERE HAVE TOLD ME THAT THEY’RE WORKING WITH SECURITY EXPERTS. YOU KNOW, THEY BROUGHT IN ADDITIONAL FOLKS IN THE WAKE OF WHAT HAPPENED IN IOWA WITH THE PROBLEMS THEY EXPERIENCED THERE WITH THEIR REPORTING DAY APP. THE PARTY HERE HAS NOT SPECIFIED EXACTLY WHAT THOSE STEPS ARE. THEY SAY THEY ARE TAKING STEPS, THOUGH THEY DON’T WANT TO DETAIL ALL OF THEM, THOUGH, FOR SECURITY PURPOSES. THEY ALSO SAY THAT THEY’RE TESTING THE SYSTEM, THE CAUCUS DAY SYSTEM THAT IS, WITH VOLUNTEERS THAT ARE BOTH EXPERIENCED, THEY’VE RUN A CAUCUS BEFORE, AND WITH VOLUNTEERS WHO ARE FIRST TIME VOLUNTEERS. THEY WANT TO MAKE SURE THAT THIS SYSTEM IS USABLE FOR EVERYONE, SORT OF, REGARDLESS OF THEIR EXPERIENCE LEVEL.>>Sreenivasan: ONE OF THE SURPRISING STORIES IS, WELL, A NON-ENDORSEMENT. THE CULINARY UNION, WHICH IS TRADITIONALLY PRETTY POWERFUL, HAS CHOSEN TO WAIT. HOW, HOW SIGNIFICANT IS THAT?>>THAT’S RIGHT. IT’S A REALLY BIG DEAL, ACTUALLY, HERE IN NEVADA. SO, THE CULINARY UNION, THEY REPRESENT ABOUT 60,000 HOTEL WORKERS, THE ONES ON THE LAS VEGAS STRIP AND ALL ACROSS THE STATE. THEY ARE A POLITICALLY POWERFUL UNION. THEY’RE KNOWN FOR TURNING THE TIDES IN ELECTIONS IF THEY WANT TO GET INVOLVED AND THEY WANT TO GET THEIR FOLKS OUT TO VOTE. THEY DID, AS YOU MENTIONED, DECIDE TO NOT ENDORSE IN THIS DEMOCRATIC PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY. IT WAS THE SUBJECT OF MUCH SPECULATION FOR QUITE SOME TIME AS TO WHETHER THEY WOULD. THIS ENDORSEMENT IS GENERALLY– OR NON-ENDORSEMENT, RATHER, IS THOUGHT TO BE, YOU KNOW, MORE HURTFUL TOWARD JOE BIDEN, FORMER VICE PRESIDENT, IN THAT HE’S HAD A LONGSTANDING RELATIONSHIP WITH THE UNION. IN FACT, THE UNION SECRETARY TREASURER WENT SO FAR AS TO DESCRIBE HIM AS A FRIEND IN THEIR NON-ENDORSEMENT ANNOUNCEMENT. HE WAS THE ONLY CANDIDATE THAT THEY MENTIONED BY NAME. AT THE SAME TIME, THEY’RE DECIDING TO REALLY FOCUS ON THEIR PRIORITIES. AND ONE OF THOSE IS MAKING SURE THAT A CANDIDATE THAT SUPPORTS MEDICARE FOR ALL DOES NOT GET PAST. THAT’S BECAUSE THE UNION RUNS THEIR OWN HEALTH TRUST AND THEY DON’T WANT TO SEE THAT GO AWAY UNDER A MEDICARE FOR ALL PLAN.>>Sreenivasan: AND SO, ARE THERE ANY OTHER CONTENDERS THAT SEE THAT AS AN OPPORTUNITY?>>YES. SO THIS IS GENERALLY THOUGHT TO BE SORT OF LEVELING THE PLAYING FIELD, ESPECIALLY AMONG THE CANDIDATES THAT ARE MORE MODERATE. THEY PREFER THE CREATION OF A GOVERNMENT RUN PUBLIC HEALTH INSURANCE OPTION VERSUS JUST A SINGLE MEDICARE FOR ALL SYSTEM. SO THIS IS GENERALLY THOUGHT TO BE, YOU KNOW, A GOOD THING FOR PETE BUTTIGIEG, IT’S THOUGHT TO BE A GOOD THING FOR AMY KLOBUCHAR. IT SORT OF DOES LEVEL THE PLAYING FIELD AND NOW ALLOWS ALL OF THESE CAMPAIGNS REALLY TO GO OUT AND COURT UNION MEMBERS, AS OPPOSED TO KNOWING THAT THE UNION IS HARD AT WORK, TRYING TO GET THEIR FOLKS OUT SPECIFICALLY TO SUPPORT ONE PARTICULAR CANDIDATE.>>Sreenivasan: ALL RIGHT, MEGAN MESSERLY, THANKS SO MUCH FOR JOINING US.>>THANKS FOR HAVING ME ON.>>Sreenivasan: FOR CONTINUING COVERAGE OF THE NEVADA CAUCUSES AND THE 2020 PRESIDENTIAL RACE, VISIT pbs.org/newshour.>>Sreenivasan: TAIWAN ANNOUNCED ITS FIRST DEATH FROM THE CORONAVIRUS TODAY. THE VICTIM WAS A 61-YEAR OLD MAN WHO HAD NEVER TRAVELED TO MAINLAND CHINA. JAPAN ANNOUNCED 70 MORE INFECTIONS ON THE QUARANTINED “DIAMOND PRINCESS” CRUISE SHIP, MEANING THEY NOW HAVE 355 CONFIRMED CASES. IT IS THE LARGEST CLUSTER OF THE CORONAVIRUS OUTSIDE OF CHINA. A TOP U.S. OFFICIAL SAID TODAY THAT 40 AMERICAN PASSENGERS WHO WERE INFECTED WITH THE VIRUS WILL REMAIN IN JAPAN FOR TREATMENT. OTHER AMERICANS ON THE SHIP ARE BEING EVACUATED TO U.S. AIR FORCE BASES WHERE THEY WILL SPEND ANOTHER TWO WEEKS IN QUARANTINE. AT A NEWS CONFERENCE TODAY IN MALAYSIA, THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER SAID AN AMERICAN WOMAN WHO WAS ON THE WESTERDAM CRUISE SHIP NOW DOCKED IN CAMBODIA HAS TESTED POSITIVE A SECOND TIME FOR THE CORONAVIRUS. MALAYSIAN AUTHORITIES SAY THEY WILL NOT ALLOW ANY MORE PASSENGERS FROM THE SHIP TO ENTER THE COUNTRY. WINDS GUSTING MORE THAN 90 MILES PER HOUR AND RECORD RAINFALL CAUSED BRITISH AUTHORITIES TO ISSUE MORE THAN 350 FLOOD WARNINGS AS A STORM NAMED DENNIS INTENSIFIED ACROSS THE U.K. TODAY. THE WEATHER ALERTS INCLUDED WHAT’S CALLED A “RED WARNING” FOR SOUTH WALES– BRITAIN’S HIGHEST LEVEL FOR WEATHER- RELATED DANGERS AND THE FIRST ISSUED SINCE 2015. HUNDREDS OF FLIGHTS WERE CANCELED BECAUSE OF HIGH WINDS AND TRAIN SERVICE WAS REPEATEDLY DISRUPTED. DENNIS IS THE FOURTH NAMED STORM THIS WINTER IN EUROPE AND HAS BEEN BLAMED FOR TWO DEATHS. FLOODWATERS IN MISSISSIPPI CONTINUED TO RISE TODAY JUST ONE DAY AFTER THE GOVERNOR DECLARED A STATE OF EMERGENCY. STATE OFFICIALS ARE WARNING CITIZENS TO AVOID THE PEARL RIVER IN AND AROUND THE CAPITAL CITY OF JACKSON. THE RIVER IS EXPECTED TO CREST AT 38 FEET TOMORROW EVENING, THAT’S TEN FEET ABOVE FLOOD STAGE. THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE REMAIN AT RISK AND THE RISING WATERS ARE THREATENING MORE THAN 2,400 STRUCTURES. THE CURRENT FLOODING COULD BE THE WORST IN JACKSON SINCE 1983, WHEN THE PEARL RIVER CRESTED AT ALMOST 40 FEET.>>Sreenivasan: TUESDAY WILL MARK 55 YEARS SINCE TWO OF AMERICA’S MOST INFLUENTIAL INTELLECTUALS FACED OFF IN A DEBATE IN ENGLAND AT CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY’S DEBATING SOCIETY– THE CAMBRIDGE UNION. IT WAS A DEBATE ABOUT RACE: ONE THAT STILL FASCINATES AND RESONATES TODAY AND IS THE SUBJECT OF A NEW BOOK. NEWSHOUR WEEKEND’S ZACHARY GREEN HAS OUR STORY.>>THE TROUBLE IN AMERICA WHERE THE NEGRO COMMUNITY IS CONCERNED IS A VERY COMPLICATED ONE.>>IT COMES AS A GREAT SHOCK TO DISCOVER THAT THE COUNTRY– WHICH IS YOUR BIRTHPLACE AND TO WHICH YOU OWE YOUR LIFE AND YOUR IDENTITY– HAS NOT IN ITS WHOLE SYSTEM OF REALITY EVOLVED ANY PLACE FOR YOU.>>Reporter: ON THE EVENING OF FEBRUARY 18, 1965, TWO CULTURAL GIANTS, JAMES BALDWIN AND WILLIAM F. BUCKLEY, JR., SQUARED OFF IN-PERSON FOR THE FIRST TIME. MORE THAN 50 YEARS LATER, THE DEBATE STILL RESONATES. POLITICAL SCIENCE PROFESSOR NICHOLAS BUCCOLA OF LINFIELD COLLEGE IN OREGON WAS SO TAKEN WITH THE SKIRMISH THAT HE WROTE A BOOK ABOUT IT: “THE FIRE IS UPON US.”>>IT JUST SEEMED TO ME JUST SUCH A DRAMATIC MOMENT AND SUCH AN IMPORTANT ONE. SO THESE TWO MOVEMENTS THAT DID SO MUCH TO DEFINE 20th CENTURY POLITICAL HISTORY– TO HAVE THESE TWO FIGURES CLASHING WAS JUST– JUST IRRESISTIBLE.>>Reporter: THOUGH BALDWIN AND BUCKLEY WERE ABOUT THE SAME AGE, THEIR LIVES COULD NOT HAVE BEGUN MORE DIFFERENTLY. BALDWIN GREW UP IN POVERTY IN HARLEM, AND WENT FROM WAITING TABLES IN NEW YORK’S GREENWICH VILLAGE TO BECOME A LITERARY CRITIC AND, EVENTUALLY, A RENOWNED NOVELIST AND ESSAYIST. BUCKLEY, A SCION OF WEALTH, GRADUATED FROM YALE AND BECAME AN INFLUENTIAL MAGAZINE EDITOR AND COLUMNIST. BOTH WROTE EXTENSIVELY ABOUT RACE IN 1950s AND 60s AMERICA–THOUGH FROM DRASTICALLY DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW. BUCKLEY MADE HIS POSITION CLEAR IN A 1957 NATIONAL REVIEW PIECE CALLED “WHY THE SOUTH MUST PREVAIL,” IN WHICH HE CONTENDED THAT WHITE SOUTHERNERS ARE ENTITLED TO “TAKE SUCH MEASURES AS ARE NECESSARY TO PREVAIL, POLITICALLY AND CULTURALLY” OVER BLACK CITIZENS.>>AND BUCKLEY SAYS EXPLICITLY THAT THEY HAVE THIS RIGHT AND DUTY BECAUSE THEY ARE, AND THIS IS A QUOTE, “FOR THE TIME BEING THE ADVANCED RACE.” AND HE CALLS ON PEOPLE IN THE SOUTH– THEY HAVE AN OBLIGATION TO PROMOTE THE CULTURAL EQUALITY OF BLACK PEOPLE, AND THAT EVENTUALLY THEY NEED TO ALLOW THEM IN– TO, YOU KNOW– EMPOWER THEM WITH FULL CITIZENSHIP.>>Reporter: WHAT DID BALDWIN THINK WAS AT THE HEART OF THE RACIAL DIVIDE IN AMERICA?>>WHAT BALDWIN SAID FROM, YOU KNOW, SOME OF HIS EARLIEST– EARLIEST WRITINGS ON THIS IS THAT– THESE PEOPLE ARE SCARED. THEIR IDENTITY IS WRAPPED UP IN THIS IDEA THAT THEIR WHITENESS IS WHAT GIVES THEM THEIR ONLY SOURCE OF MORAL WORTH IN THE WORLD, IT’S WHAT GIVES THEM VALUE IN THE WORLD. BALDWIN SAYS THAT IS AN EXTRAORDINARILY SAD MORAL LIFE THAT THAT PERSON IS LEADING. THAT IS THE THING THEY ARE CLINGING TO– TO GIVE THEM A SENSE OF MEANING.>>Reporter: BUCCOLA INTERVIEWED MEMBERS OF CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY’S DEBATING SOCIETY– THE CAMBRIDGE UNION– WHO WERE PRESENT AT THE 1965 DEBATE. THEY SAID THE UNION AGREED TO LET BALDWIN APPEAR AS PART OF A PUBLICITY TOUR FOR ONE OF HIS BOOKS– AS LONG AS ANOTHER GUEST CHALLENGED HIM ON ONE OF THE THEMES OF HIS WRITINGS. THEY ULTIMATELY INVITED BUCKLEY, WHO ACCEPTED. THE MOTION DEBATED WAS THIS: “THE AMERICAN DREAM IS AT THE EXPENSE OF THE AMERICAN NEGRO.”>>GOOD EVENING.>>BALDWIN STARTS HIS SPEECH WITH THIS IDEA THAT WE CAN’T EVEN BEGIN REFLECTING ON THE MORAL AND POLITICAL QUESTIONS AT HAND WITHOUT FIRST ADDRESSING THIS– THIS QUESTION OF, “WHAT IS ONE’S SYSTEM OF REALITY?”>>THE MISSISSIPPI, OR THE ALABAMA, SHERIFF, WHO REALLY DOES BELIEVE WHEN HE’S FACING A NEGRO, A BOY OR A GIRL, THAT THIS WOMAN, THIS MAN, THIS CHILD, MUST BE INSANE TO ATTACK THE SYSTEM TO WHICH HE OWES HIS ENTIRE IDENTITY. OF COURSE, FOR SUCH A PERSON, THE PROPOSITION OF WHICH, WHICH WE ARE TRYING TO DISCUSS HERE TONIGHT, DOES NOT EXIST.>>Reporter: THERE’S THIS ONE KIND OF REMARKABLE POINT IN THE SPEECH WHERE BALDWIN SUDDENLY SHIFTS FROM SPEAKING IN THE SECOND PERSON TO SPEAKING IN THE FIRST PERSON.>>I AM STATING VERY SERIOUSLY, AND THIS IS NOT AN OVERSTATEMENT, THATIPICKED THE COTTON, ANDICARRIED IT TO MARKET, ANDIBUILT THE RAILROADS, UNDER SOMEONE ELSE’S WHIP, FOR NOTHING. FOR NOTHING.>>Reporter: WHAT DO YOU THINK HIS PURPOSE WAS IN MAKING THIS SHIFT?>>BALDWIN WANTS TO CALL ON EVERYONE WATCHING THAT DEBATE TO RECOGNIZE THAT WHITE SUPREMACY IS NOT SOMETHING IN THE PAST. IT’S SOMETHING THAT’S CENTRAL TO ALL OF OUR LIVES, AND THAT WE ARE ALL IN SOME SENSE COMPLICIT IN IT, AND WE ALL HAVE A RESPONSIBILITY TO FIGHT BACK AGAINST IT. AND HE TALKS ABOUT THE WAYS IN WHICH THE MORAL LIVES OF WHITE PEOPLE HAVE BEEN DESTROYED BY THIS PLAGUE CALLED “COLOR.”>>NO MATTER WHAT DISASTER OVERTAKES THEM, THEY HAVE ONE ENORMOUS KNOWLEDGE AND CONSOLATION WHICH IS LIKE A HEAVENLY REVELATION: AT LEAST THEY ARE NOT BLACK. NOW I SUGGEST THAT OF ALL THE TERRIBLE THINGS THAT CAN HAPPEN TO A HUMAN BEING, THAT IS ONE OF THE WORST. I SUGGEST THAT WHAT HAS HAPPENED TO WHITE SOUTHERNERS IS IN SOME WAYS, AFTER ALL, MUCH WORSE THAN WHAT HAS HAPPENED TO NEGROES THERE.>>Reporter: WHEN BALDWIN ENDED HIS REMARKS, HE RECEIVED A STANDING OVATION. THEN IT WAS BUCKLEY’S TURN TO TAKE THE FLOOR.>>IT IS IMPOSSIBLE, IN MY JUDGMENT, TO DEAL WITH THE INDICTMENT OF MR. BALDWIN UNLESS ONE IS PREPARED TO DEAL WITH HIM AS A WHITE MAN.>>THIS IS A STRANGE ARGUMENT FOR MANY OF US TO HEAR, BUT HERE’S WHAT BUCKLEY HAD IN MIND. FOR BUCKLEY, PART OF THE EXPERIENCE OF BEING TREATED AS A BLACK PERSON WAS TO NOT HAVE ONE’S IDEAS TAKEN SERIOUSLY. AND SO BUCKLEY’S ARGUMENT WAS THAT, “I WILL TREAT BALDWIN AS A WHITE MAN,” THAT FOR BUCKLEY THAT MEANT, “I WILL TAKE HIS IDEAS SERIOUSLY, AND I WILL CALL HIM OUT FOR THE IDEAS THAT I THINK ARE DANGEROUS.”>>Reporter: BUCKLEY WENT ON TO DESCRIBE WHAT HE SAW AS THE CAUSES OF RACIAL INEQUALITY IN AMERICA.>>ONE IS THE DREADFUL EFFORTS TO PERPETUATE DISCRIMINATION BY MANY INDIVIDUAL AMERICAN CITIZENS AS A RESULT OF THEIR LACK OF THAT FINAL AND ULTIMATE CONCERN WHICH SOME PEOPLE ARE TRULY TRYING TO AGITATE. THE OTHER IS AS A RESULT OF THE FAILURE OF THE NEGRO COMMUNITY ITSELF TO MAKE CERTAIN EXERTIONS, WHICH WERE MADE BY OTHER MINORITY GROUPS DURING THE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE.>>BUCKLEY IS VERY CAREFUL TO SAY, “THERE ARE INDIVIDUAL WHITE PEOPLE. SO IT’S NOT A COLLECTIVE PROBLEM. THERE ARE SOME BAD APPLES OUT THERE, AND THAT NEED TO BE ADDRESSED.” BUT THEN HE SAYS REALLY THE CENTRAL PROBLEM IS THAT AFRICAN AMERICANS AREN’T TAKING ADVANTAGE OF THE OPPORTUNITIES THAT ARE AVAILABLE TO THEM.>>Reporter: AT THE TIME OF THE DEBATE IN EARLY 1965, THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT HAD NOT YET PASSED AND BLACK PEOPLE IN THE SOUTH STILL FACED ENORMOUS BARRIERS AT THE BALLOT BOX. AT ONE POINT DURING BUCKLEY’S REMARKS, AN AMERICAN AUDIENCE MEMBER INTERJECTED.>>ONE THING YOU MIGHT DO, MR. BUCKLEY, IS LET THEM VOTE IN MISSISSIPPI.>>I THINK ACTUALLY WHAT IS WRONG IN MISSISSIPPI, SIR, IS NOT THAT NOT ENOUGH NEGROES ARE VOTING BUT THAT TOO MANY WHITE PEOPLE ARE VOTING. (LAUGHTER)>>THE AUDIENCE LAUGHS, BUT BUCKLEY IS DEADLY SERIOUS ABOUT THIS. HE’S STILL SUPPORTING DISENFRANCHISEMENT OF BLACK PEOPLE, BUT HE’S SAYING, “I’LL ALSO DISENFRANCHISE SOME WHITE PEOPLE AND LEAVE ONLY A WHITE ELITE TO CONTROL THE SITUATION IN THE SOUTH.” AND HE’S USING THINGS LIKE THIS IDEA OF COLORBLIND CONSTITUTIONALISM AS A WAY TO KIND OF HOLLOW OUT THE ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT.>>Reporter: AT THE END OF THE DEBATE, A VOTE WAS TAKEN TO DETERMINE THE “WINNER.” BALDWIN RECEIVED 544 VOTES. BUCKLEY JUST 164. BUT BUCKLEY WAS FAR FROM DISCOURAGED.>>HE SAYS, “I AM SO PROUD OF MY PERFORMANCE THAT NIGHT BECAUSE I DID NOT GIVE THEM ONE (BLEEP) INCH.” THAT REALLY CAPTURES HIS CREED IN– IN– YOU KNOW, A VERY SHORT SLOGAN, RIGHT?>>Reporter: IN BUCCOLA’S FINAL ANALYSIS, THE DIVIDE BETWEEN BALDWIN AND BUCKLEY IS REFLECTIVE OF THE POLITICAL DIVIDE FACING AMERICANS EVEN TODAY.>>TO BE A PATRIOT FOR BUCKLEY MEANT STANDING UP FOR THE INSTITUTIONS AND IDEAS THAT YOU TAKE TO BE CENTRAL TO THE AMERICAN POLITICAL EXPERIMENT, AND HE VIEWED HIS ROLE THROUGHOUT HIS LIFE AS– AS BEING SOMEBODY WHO WOULD BE A GUARDIAN OF THOSE IDEALS AGAINST IDEAS, AND– AND INSTITUTIONS, AND GROUPS THAT HE THOUGHT WERE THREATENING TO THOSE IDEALS. BALDWIN SAYS THAT PATRIOTISM REQUIRES A CONSTANT CRITICISM, A CONSTANT REFLECTION ON THE WAYS IN WHICH WE’RE FALLING SHORT OF OUR-OUR IDEALS AND– AND TO LOVE ONE’S COUNTRY MEANS THAT WE HAVE TO DO THAT TOGETHER. IT’S THE FOUNDATION OF MORALLY HOW WE SH– HOW WE OUGHT TO BEHAVE, HOW WE OUGHT TO LIVE TOGETHER, AND IT’S THE FOUNDATION POLITICALLY OF WHAT WE NEED TO DO AS A COUNTRY TO MOVE CLOSER TO JUSTICE.>>Sreenivasan: ARIZONA HAS BEEN IN A STATE OF DROUGHT FOR SOME TWO DECADES. THAT HAS HELPED MOTIVATE A SEARCH FOR NEW WAYS TO CONSERVE WATER, PARTICULARLY IN AGRICULTURE. NEWSHOUR WEEKEND VISITED CENTRAL ARIZONA TO GET A FIRSTHAND LOOK AT WHAT SOME ORGANIZATIONS AND FARMERS ARE DOING TO TRANSITION AWAY FROM WATER-INTENSIVE CROPS. IVETTE FELICIANO HAS MORE.>>WE PICK UP RAW GRAIN AND WE BRING THAT RAW BARLEY IN HERE AND WE CLEAN IT. AND THAT’S OUR FIRST STEP.>>Reporter: IN THIS 3,200 SQUARE FOOT SPACE IN THE TOWN OF CAMP VERDE IN CENTRAL ARIZONA, CHIP NORTON IS TAKING US THROUGH THE PROCESS OF MALTING BARLEY.>>HERE’S WHAT THE BARLEY LOOKS LIKE RIGHT HERE. IT’S JUST LIKE SEEDS.>>Reporter: NORTON IS THE FOUNDER OF SINAGUA MALT. EVERY WEEK IT CONVERTS 8,000 POUNDS OF RAW BARLEY INTO MALTED BARLEY. THIS PROCESS INVOLVES SOAKING THE KERNELS IN WATER TO GERMINATE AND THEN DRYING THEM TO ENCOURAGE FERMENTATION. THIS BARLEY IS A KEY INGREDIENT IN BEER AND THIS PLANT JUST MIGHT HELP SAVE THE LOCAL WATER SUPPLY. TO UNDERSTAND WHY THAT IS, YOU FIRST HAVE TO VISIT THE LARGEST BODY OF WATER IN THE AREA– THE VERDE RIVER. THE MORE THAN 150 MILE RIVER RUNS THROUGH CENTRAL ARIZONA AND SUPPORTS IRRIGATION OF LOCAL FARMS– WHICH ARE AMONG THE HEAVIEST USERS OF WATER IN THE AREA. IT ALSO PROVIDES WATER TO DOWNSTREAM RESIDENTS. BUT EFFECTS FROM LONG TERM DROUGHT, CLIMATE CHANGE, AND DEVELOPMENT ALONG ITS BANKS THREATEN ITS ABILITY TO DELIVER WATER TO MILLIONS OF PEOPLE AND FARMS THAT DEPEND ON IT.>>THE VERDE RIVER IS A PRETTY AMAZING RIVER AND IT’S VERY RESILIENT, AND HAS FLOW IN THE RIVER, BUT WE HAVE A FEW PLACES WHERE THE FLOW GETS REALLY LOW AND YOU KNOW IT’S ALMOST DRY.>>Reporter: KIMBERLY SCHONEK IS THE VERDE RIVER PROGRAM DIRECTOR FOR THE NON-PROFIT ENVIRONMENTAL ORGANIZATION, THE NATURE CONSERVANCY.>>SO WHAT THE CONSERVANCY HAS REALLY BEEN WORKING ON IS HOW DO WE KEEP THIS RIVER LOOKING THE WAY IT LOOKS. AND WE WANT TO RESTORE FLOW IN THOSE PLACES WHERE IT IS REALLY LOW AND WE WANT TO MAKE SURE THAT FLOW CONTINUES INTO THE FUTURE.>>Reporter: AND THAT BARLEY BEING PROCESSED AT SINAGUA MAY BE PART OF THE SOLUTION.>>YOU KNOW, THE FIRST YEAR WAS 15 ACRES AND NOW WERE UP TO 150 ACRES.>>Reporter: IN 2016 THE NATURE CONSERVANCY PARTNERED WITH ZACH HAUSER AND HIS FAMILY ON A PILOT PROJECT. THE HAUSER’S CONVERTED SOME OF THE CONSERVANCY’S ALFALFA FIELDS TO BARLEY WITH THE HOPE OF EVENTUALLY GROWING BARLEY ON THEIR FAMILY LAND.>>WE’VE GROWN BARLEY BEFORE SO WE KNOW THAT BARLEY WORKS HERE.>>Reporter: BUT REPEATING THAT PAST SUCCESS WAS IMPORTANT. MUCH OF THE HAUSER FAMILY’S 700 ACRES WERE FILLED WITH ALFALFA AND CORN, VERY THIRSTY CROPS. IF THEY GREW BARLEY ON THE OTHER HAND, THEY COULD USE ABOUT 50% LESS WATER TO IRRIGATE PER ACRE. AND THERE WOULD BE ANOTHER BENEFIT.>>BARLEY USES WATER FROM JANUARY THROUGH MAY, BUT THEN NO IRRIGATION JUNE, JULY AND AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER WHEN THE RIVER GETS TO ITS LOWEST.>>Reporter: THIS WATER-USE CYCLE HELPS CONSERVE WATER WHEN RIVER FLOW IS REDUCED. ALFALFA AND CORN, ON THE OTHER HAND, REQUIRE WATER THROUGH THE SUMMER. BUT NONE OF THAT WOULD MATTER TO THE HAUSERS IF THEY COULDN’T MAKE A PROFIT. BARLEY IS OFTEN GROWN FOR ANIMAL FEED– A LOWER PROFIT VENTURE.>>IF WE CAN DO WHAT WE CAN TO CONSERVE WATER AND USE AS LITTLE AS POSSIBLE BUT STILL YOU KNOW, MAKE A GOOD CROP AND MAKE A PROFIT. YOU KNOW, THAT’S WHAT WE’RE AFTER.>>Reporter: BUT THERE WAS JUST ONE PROBLEM.>>THERE WAS NO CRAFT MALTHOUSE IN ARIZONA. SO THE FARMER WOULD HAVE HAD TO SHIP THE BARLEY ALL THE WAY TO WHO KNOWS, IDAHO, SASKATCHEWAN, WHEREVER, TO GET IT MALTED AND THEN SHIP IT BACK. THE LOCAL MARKET IS A MUCH BETTER SETUP FOR A LOCAL FARMER.>>Reporter: THAT’S WHERE SINAGUA MALT CAME IN… CREATING A LOCAL MARKET FOR FARMERS TO SELL RAW BARLEY.>>IF WE COULD COME UP WITH A WAY TO GET THE BARLEY MALTED THEN WE WOULD HAVE A MARKET FOR THE FARMER.>>Reporter: BARLEY FOR MALTING CAN MAKE A FARM ABOUT $200 A TON VERSUS LESS THAN $150 FOR BARLEY GROWN FOR FEED. SO IN 2017, THE NATURE CONSERVANCY INVESTED $200,000 TO HELP OPEN SINAGUA MALT AND SECURED BUY-IN FROM A FEW LOCAL BREWERIES TO PURCHASE THE MALT BARLEY. IT REGISTERED AS A BENEFIT CORPORATION, MEANING PROFITS GO TOWARDS A PUBLIC OR SOCIAL GOOD, LIKE WATER CONSERVATION, AND NOT JUST SHAREHOLDERS. THE PROJECT IS STILL IN ITS INFANCY, BUT 150 ACRES OF BARLEY GROWN IN CAMP VERDE NOW SUPPLIES 13 BREWERIES IN ARIZONA. AND ACCORDING TO THE NATURE CONSERVANCY, EARLY RESULTS SHOW IT SAVED CLOSE TO 50 MILLION GALLONS OF WATER IN 2019. THAT’S ON TOP OF THE 100 MILLION GALLONS FROM THE PREVIOUS TWO YEARS.>>SINAGUA MALT AND THIS CROP CONVERSION AREN’T A SILVER BULLET. BUT IT’S AN IMPORTANT PART OF A MENU OF THINGS THAT IF THEY’RE DONE IN A COORDINATED WAY WILL MAKE A DIFFERENCE TO KEEP THE VERDE RIVER FLOWING.>>THIS IS PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND,SUNDAY.>>Sreenivasan: FOR THE LAST SEVERAL WEEKS WE’VE BEEN BRINGING YOU A SERIES OF REPORTS FROM PBS STUDENT REPORTING LABS. TODAY, THEY ARE EXPLORING MISCONCEPTIONS OF L.G.B.T.Q. YOUTH. IT’S PART OF THEIR “NO LABELS ATTACHED” SERIES.>>THE TIME I FELT MISUNDERSTOOD IS WHEN I TOLD MY DAD I WAS GAY. THAT’S WHEN I FELT MISUNDERSTOOD, LIKE, A LOT. BECAUSE HE DIDN’T TAKE IT HOW I WANTED HIM TO TAKE IT.>>I WAS SCARED TO COME OUT, AND I JUST HID MYSELF, AND I FELL INTO LIKE A HUGE DEPRESSION AND COULDN’T TRUST ANYONE.>>I HAD TOLD SOMEONE THAT I WAS BISEXUAL. AND BECAUSE OF THAT, THEY THOUGHT THAT I LIKED EVERYONE AROUND ME. I LIKED EVERY BOY AND EVERY GIRL AND THEY MADE FUN OF ME FOR THAT.>>THE BIGGEST STEREOTYPE THAT YOU GET SURROUNDING BEING GENDER FLUID, OR HAVING PRONOUNS THAT ARE NOT NECESSARILY SET IN STONE, IS THE STEREOTYPE OF THE SPECIAL SNOWFLAKE OR THE PERSON WHO IS JUST DOING IT TO GET ATTENTION OR FAKING IT SPECIFICALLY.>>IN MY DAY TO DAY LIFE THAT’S PEOPLE BEING WEIRDED OUT BY ME OR BEING CONFUSED BY ME, OR MISGENDERING ME ALL THE TIME, AND IT’S NOT SOMETHING THAT I SHOULD BE DEALING WITH OR THAT ANY TRANSGENDER PERSON SHOULD BE DEALING WITH BECAUSE WE WANT TO JUST LIVE OUR LIVES LIKE EVERYONE ELSE.>>IT HURT BECAUSE I WAS BEING BULLIED FOR IT. BUT IT WAS ALSO I TRIED TO UNDERSTAND HER BECAUSE SHE DIDN’T REALLY UNDERSTAND ME.>>ALL MY FRIENDS WERE COMPASSIONATE. THEY DIDN’T TREAT ME DIFFERENTLY LIKE MY OLD FRIEND. AND IT WAS JUST FINDING THE RIGHT GROUP OF FRIENDS TO SUPPORT YOU.>>BEING ME IS BEING MYSELF AND THAT’S WHATEVER COMES WITH ME.>>YOU ARE VALID, BECAUSE YOU ARE! UM, NO MATTER WHO YOU ARE, NO MATTER WHAT YOU ARE, NO MATTER WHAT YOU IDENTIFY AS OR WHAT YOU FEEL, YOU ARE VALID, YOUR FEELINGS ARE VALID, AND THAT’S THE MOST IMPORTANT THING.>>Sreenivasan: NEWSHOUR WILL HAVE THE LATEST ON THE RACE FOR THE DEMOCRATIC PRESIDENTIAL NOMINATION, INCLUDING THE NEXT CANDIDATE DEBATE, WEDNESDAY NIGHT IN LAS VEGAS, AND PRESIDENT TRUMP’S PLANNED RALLY THERE ON FRIDAY. WATCH ON AIR OR ONLINE AT pbs.org/newshour. THAT’S ALL FOR THIS EDITION OF PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND, I’M HARI SREENIVASAN, THANKS FOR WATCHING, HAVE A GOODS NIGHT.>>PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND IS MADEPOSSIBLE BY:BERNARD AND IRENE SCHWARTZ.SUE AND EDGAR WACHENHEIM III.THE CHERYL AND PHILIP MILSTEINFAMILY.ROSALIND P. WALTER.BARBARA HOPE ZUCKERBERG.CHARLES ROSENBLUM.WE TRY TO LIVE IN THE MOMENT,TO NOT MISS WHAT’S RIGHT INFRONT OF US.AT MUTUAL OF AMERICA, WEBELIEVE TAKING CARE OF TOMORROWCAN HELP YOU MAKE THE MOST OFTODAY.MUTUAL OF AMERICA FINANCIALGROUP, RETIREMENT SERVICES ANDINVESTMENTS.ADDITIONAL SUPPORT HAS BEENPROVIDED BY:AND BY THE CORPORATION FORPUBLIC BROADCASTING, A PRIVATECORPORATION FUNDED BY THEAMERICAN PEOPLE.AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOURPBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKEYOU.THANK YOU.

Add a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *