PBS NewsHour Weekend full episode January 11, 2019


>>Sreenivasan: ON THIS EDITION FOR SATURDAY, JANUARY 11: IRAN SAYS THE DOWNING OF A UKRANIAN PASSENGER PLANE WAS “HUMAN ERROR.” IN OUR SIGNATURE SEGMENT: A NEW INFLUX OF MIGRANTS IN THE CROSSHAIRS OF SHIFTING IMMIGRATION POLICIES. AND, NEUROSCIENTIST DANIEL LEVITIN ON AGING SUCCESSFULLY. NEXT, ON PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND.>>PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND IS MADEPOSSIBLE BY:BERNARD AND IRENE SCHWARTZ.SUE AND EDGAR WACHENHEIM III.THE CHERYL AND PHILIP MILSTEINFAMILY.ROSALIND P. WALTER.BARBARA HOPE ZUCKERBERG.CHARLES ROSENBLUM.WE TRY TO LIVE IN THE MOMENT,TO NOT MISS WHAT’S RIGHT INFRONT OF US.AT MUTUAL OF AMERICA, WEBELIEVE TAKING CARE OF TOMORROWCAN HELP YOU MAKE THE MOST OFTODAY.MUTUAL OF AMERICA FINANCIALGROUP, RETIREMENT SERVICES ANDINVESTMENTS.ADDITIONAL SUPPORT HAS BEENPROVIDED BY:AND BY THE CORPORATION FORPUBLIC BROADCASTING, A PRIVATECORPORATION FUNDED BY THEAMERICAN PEOPLE.AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOURPBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKEYOU.THANK YOU.FROM THE TISCH WNET STUDIOS ATLINCOLN CENTER IN NEW YORK,HARI SREENIVASAN.>>Sreenivasan: GOOD EVENING, AND THANKS FOR JOINING US. TODAY, IRAN’S REVOLUTIONARY GUARD ADMITTED IT ACCIDENTALLY SHOT DOWN THE UKRAINIAN JETLINER THIS PAST WEDNESDAY WHICH KILLED ALL 176 PEOPLE ON BOARD. IRAN PREVIOUSLY DENIED RESPONSIBILITY. THE GENERAL IN CHARGE OF IRAN’S AIR DEFENSE SYSTEMS SAID THE PLANE WAS MISIDENTIFIED AS A CRUISE MISSILE, HEADING TOWARD AN IRANIAN MILITARY BASE, HOURS AFTER IRAN FIRED A BARRAGE OF MISSILES AT TWO U.S. BASES IN IRAQ.>>(translated): WE ARE SORRY ABOUT THIS INCIDENT, AND WE CONSIDER OURSELVES MOURNFUL JUST LIKE THE FAMILIES OF THESE MARTYRS, AND SYMPATHIZE WITH THEM. IT IS AS SUCH THAT WE HAVE LOST OUR OWN LOVED ONES, AND WE ARE REGRETFUL ABOUT THAT. AFTER ALL, THIS IS THE PRICE OF MISCHIEFS, TURBULENCES AND ACTIONS OF AMERICA IN THE REGION. THAT NIGHT, WE WERE PREPARED FOR AN ALL-OUT CONFLICT. (CHANTING)>>Sreenivasan: THERE WERE PROTESTS IN TEHRAN AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT’S ADMISSION, AFTER DAYS OF DENIAL. SOME CHANTED DEMANDS FOR THE COUNTRY’S SUPREME LEADER AYATOLLAH ALI KHAMENEI TO RESIGN. THE UKRAINIAN PRESIDENT, VOLODYMYR ZELENKSY, TWEETED, “THE PERPETRATORS MUST BE HELD ACCOUNTABLE. WE LOOK FORWARD TO FURTHER LEGAL AND TECHNICAL COOPERATION.” BOTH PRESIDENT ZELENSKY AND CANADIAN PRIME MINISTER JUSTIN TRUDEAU SPOKE WITH IRAN’S PRESIDENT HASSAN ROUHANI AND ASKED FOR A FULL INVESTIGATION.>>CANADA WILL NOT REST UNTIL WE GET THE ACCOUNTABILITY, JUSTICE AND CLOSURE THAT THE FAMILIES DESERVE.>>Sreenivasan: THE U.S. AND OTHER NATIONS ARE SENDING TEAMS TO IRAN TO ASSIST IN THE INVESTIGATION. TWO U.S. SERVICE MEMBERS WERE KILLED AND TWO OTHERS WERE WOUNDED BY A ROADSIDE BOMB IN SOUTHERN AFGHANISTAN TODAY. THE TALIBAN CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE ATTACK IN THE KANDAHAR PROVINCE. PEACE TALKS BETWEEN THE GROUP AND THE U.S. REMAIN STALLED. THE DEFENSE DEPARTMENT DOES NOT RELEASE THE NAMES OF SERVICE MEMBERS KILLED IN ACTION UNTIL FAMILY MEMBERS ARE NOTIFIED. 23 U.S. TROOPS WERE KILLED IN AFGHANISTAN LAST YEAR. A 5.9 MAGNITUDE EARTHQUAKE STRUCK PUERTO RICO THIS MORNING, CAUSING MORE POWER OUTAGES AND DAMAGE ALONG THE ISLAND’S SOUTHERN COAST. THIS FOLLOWS A MAGNITUDE 6.4 QUAKE THAT STRUCK BEFORE DAWN ON TUESDAY. PUERTO RICO’S POWER AUTHORITY SAID THAT WIDESPREAD OUTAGES ARE BEING REPORTED AND CREWS ARE ASSESSING THE DAMAGE. TREMORS CONTINUED THIS AFTERNOON, INCLUDING DURING MY FACEBOOK LIVE CONVERSATION WITH CBS NEWS CORRESPONDENT DAVID BEGNAUD, WHO IS IN PENUELAS, PUERTO RICO.>>IT WAS THE SCAR– IT WAS THE SCARIEST EARTHQUAKE, SO TO SPEAK, THAT I’VE FELT ALL WEEK. AND LISTEN, THIS IS NOT HYPERBOLE HERE, RIGHT– THIS WAS ON THE TENTH FLOOR, IT SHOOK FOR ABOUT 20 SECONDS, I’D SAY, AND IT WAS FELT ACROSS THE ENTIRE ISLAND.>>Sreenivasan: YOU CAN SEE OUR FULL CONVERSATION WITH DAVID BEGNAUD ON OUR PBS NEWSHOUR FACEBOOK PAGE. TAIWAN’S PRO-INDEPENDENCE AND PRO-DEMOCRACY PRESIDENT WAS RE-ELECTED FOR HER SECOND TERM IN A LANDSLIDE VICTORY TODAY. TSAI ING-WEN WON 57% OF THE VOTE, A SHOWING OF WIDESPREAD SUPPORT FOR HER TOUGH STANCE AGAINST BEIJING. TSAI’S DEMOCRATIC PROGRESSIVE PARTY ALSO RETAINED A MAJORITY IN THE 113-SEAT LEGISLATURE. DURING HER ACCEPTANCE SPEECH, TSAI WARNED CHINA NOT TO USE FORCE TO SEIZE CONTROL OF TAIWAN, WHICH BEIJING VIEWS AS A RENEGADE PROVINCE. TSAI HOLDS A LAW DOCTORATE FROM THE LONDON SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS, AND ADVOCATES STRONG RELATIONS WITH THE UNITED STATES. IN SOUTHEAST AUSTRALIA, TWO WILDFIRES MERGED AND BECAME WHAT FIREFIGHTERS ARE CALLING A “MEGA-FIRE” LAST NIGHT. THIS NEW FIRE HAS ALREADY BURNED MORE THAN 1.5 MILLION ACRES. WEATHER CONDITIONS WERE MILDER TODAY, BUT THERE IS NO HEAVY RAIN FORECAST. OFFICIALS SAY THE FIRES ARE GOING TO CONTINUE FOR WEEKS. SINCE THEY BEGAN IN SEPTEMBER, BRUSHFIRES THROUGHOUT AUSTRALIA HAVE BURNED AN AREA LARGER THAN THE STATE OF INDIANA. AT LEAST 26 PEOPLE HAVE DIED.>>Sreenivasan: IRAQ’S GOVERNMENT IS DEMANDING THAT U.S. TROOPS LEAVE THE COUNTRY IN THE WAKE OF THE KILLING OF AN IRANIAN GENERAL, AN IRAQI MILITIA COMMANDER AND SEVERAL OTHER IRAQIS LAST WEEK. YESTERDAY, SECRETARY OF STATE MIKE POMPEO SAID THE U.S. WILLNOTWITHDRAW BUT IS OPEN TO DISCUSSIONS. THERE HAVE BEEN VIOLENT PROTESTS AGAINST BOTH THE U.S. AND IRAN IN THE PAST FEW DAYS. TWO IRAQI JOURNALISTS WERE KILLED COVERING ONE OF THOSE PROTESTS IN BASRA YESTERDAY. JOINING US NOW FOR MORE ON THE SITUATION IN IRAQ IS THE “WASHINGTON POST’S” BAGHDAD BUREAU CHIEF, LOUISA LOVELOCK. SO, IT SEEMS THAT THE IRAQI LEADERS HERE ARE CAUGHT BETWEEN A– A ROCK AND A HARD PLACE. ON THE ONE HAND, YOU HAVE THE UNITED STATES, WHO IS A FORCE THAT SAYS THEY’RE NOT GOING TO LEAVE, AND THEY HAVE THE POWER OF THE MILITARY. AND THEN, ON THE OTHER HAND, YOU’VE GOT YOUR NEIGHBOR, IRAN, WHICH IS ALSO A SIGNIFICANT FORCE IN THE REGION.>>AND THE IRAQIS SUDDENLY FIND THEMSELVES IN AN INCREDIBLY DIFFICULT POSITION RIGHT NOW, AND THE POLITICS OF THIS ARE INCREDIBLY HEATED. IT’S VERY– I THINK IT’S VERY IMPORTANT NOT TO UNDERESTIMATE THE ANGER AT THE UNILATERAL MILITARY ACTION WE’VE SEEN BY THE UNITED STATES ON IRAQI SOIL OVER THE LAST FEW WEEKS. OF COURSE, THERE’S THE KILLING OF QASSEM SOLEIMANI. THERE WAS ALSO THE KILLING OF MULTIPLE MILITIAMEN IN IRAQI MILITARY BASES. AND THAT HAS REALLY PILED PRESSURE ON THE PRIME MINISTER TO GET THE TROOPS OUT. THE QUESTION NOW REALLY IS WHETHER, YOU KNOW, A MOMENT TO SORT OF– FOR COOLER HEADS TO PREVAIL; FOR, YOU KNOW, THE POLITICS TO COOL DOWN A BIT; AND FOR A DEAL TO BE THRASHED OUT BEHIND THE SCENES CAN BE FOUND. BUT IT’S VERY DIFFICULT TO KNOW RIGHT NOW WHICH WAY THAT IS GOING TO GO.>>Sreenivasan: NOW, WE SHOULD CLARIFY THAT THERE ARE POLITICIANS IN IRAQ, THERE ARE PEOPLE IN IRAQ WHO DONOTWANT THE UNITED STATES TO LEAVE, BUT THAT’S NOT THE WAY THAT THE VOTE WAS REFLECTED IN PARLIAMENT RECENTLY. SO, WHAT KIND OF, KIND OF BACKROOM CONVERSATIONS ARE HAPPENING, LET’S SAY, IN THE IRAQI PARLIAMENT TO TRY TO SAY, “OKAY, WE MADETHISPARTICULAR SHOW, THIS DISPLAY OF OUR ANGER IN PARLIAMENT; TWO WEEKS FROM NOW, LET’S CALM DOWN AND LET’S FIGURE OUT A MORE MODERATE SOLUTION”?>>YOU KNOW, I THINK IT’S VERY IMPORTANT TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN WHO HOLDS THE BALANCE OF POWER IN THE PARLIAMENT AND WHO HAS ACTUALLY– YOU KNOW, WHAT THE INDIVIDUAL PARLIAMENTARIANS ACTUALLY THINK. WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE VOTE THAT PASSED LAST SUNDAY, URGING THE PRIME MINISTER TO EXPEL FOREIGN TROOPS, IT WAS AN OVERWHELMINGLY SHIITE VOTE, OFTEN HEAVILY INFLUENCED IN PART BY IRANIAN-LINKED GROUPS. YOU– YOU– WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE PEOPLE WHO VOTED, THE PARLIAMENT BARELY REACHED QUORUM. SUNNI LAWMAKERS BARELY TURNED UP. KURDISH LAWMAKERS BARELY TURNED UP. THERE WERE THREATS CIRCULATING, TELLING PEOPLE THAT IF THEY DIDN’T VOTE TO EXPEL U.S. TROOPS, THEY WOULD BE– THEY WOULD FACE THE “REVENGE” OF THE PEOPLE. AND SO, THIS IS CERTAINLY SOMETHING, A VOTE THAT WAS VERY POLITICIZED, AND A VOTE THAT WASNOTREPRESENTATIVE OF ALL LAWMAKERS. BUT THESE GROUPS CERTAINLY DO REPRESENT THE PREVAILING BALANCE OF POWER IN THE COUNTRY RIGHT NOW, AND, AS YOU SAY, IRAQ IS CAUGHT BETWEEN A ROCK AND A HARD PLACE. IT HAS MILITARY ALLIES IN THE UNITED STATES. IT HAS A NEIGHBOR, AND A MUCH STRONGER PARTNER IN MANY WAYS RIGHT NOW, IN IRAN. AND IT’S CERTAIN THAT THE IRANIANS THAT ARE, I THINK, WINNING.>>Sreenivasan: WHAT IS THE PRACTICAL POSSIBILITY OF WITHDRAWING ALL U.S. TROOPS? ARE MILITARY LEADERS PREPARED FOR THAT?>>THAT’S THE BIG QUESTION. I THINK IT’S A VERY REAL POSSIBILITY THAT, WITHIN THE SPACE OF A YEAR, WE WILL HAVE HAD THE DRAWDOWN OF SOME U.S. TROOPS. THE COALITION IS OVERWHELMINGLY MADE UP OF U.S. TROOPS, BUT THERE ARE MANY OTHER NATIONS IN IT, AND I KNOW THERE ARE CERTAINLY PEOPLE BEHIND THE SCENES– THE EUROPEANS, SEPARATELY TO THE UNITED STATES– LOOKING AT DIFFERENT TYPES OF TROOP PRESENCE WHICH COULD REMAIN. AND THE BIG ISSUE, OF COURSE, IS THAT THESE TROOPS ARE EXPLICITLY IN THE COUNTRY TO FIGHT THE ISLAMIC STATE. THEY HAVE DEFEATED THE ISLAMIC STATE IN ITS CALIPHATE. THAT IS NO MORE. BUT THE GROUP IS, YOU KNOW, IT’S– IT’S REGROUPING. IT’S TRYING TO, YOU KNOW, TO COME BACK. IT’S ONLY GOT THE CAPACITY TO LAUNCH SMALL-SCALE ATTACKS RIGHT NOW. BUT THE IRAQI SECURITY FORCES WHO HAVE BEEN TRAINED THROUGH THIS ENTIRE PERIOD TO, YOU KNOW, KEEP ROLLING BACK THOSE GAINS, KEEP THE FORCE CONTAINED, ARE NOT YET AT THE STAGE WHERE INTERNATIONAL FORCES CERTAINLY BELIEVE THAT THEY COULD WIN THAT FIGHT ALONE. SO, SHOULD THE COALITION WITHDRAW IN A SORT OF QUICK AND HASTY MANNER? I THINK THERE’S A REAL POSSIBILITY THAT THE ISLAMIC STATE MILITANTS, INSOFAR AS THEY EXIST, COULD MOVE FROM THE DEFENSIVE WHERE THEY ARE NOW ONTO THE OFFENSIVE. AND THAT COULD START HAVING REPERCUSSIONS FOR THE NATIONAL SECURITY OF IRAQ, THE NATIONAL SECURITY OF SYRIA, AND ULTIMATELY THE WIDER REGION.>>Sreenivasan: YEAH, LOUISA LOVELOCK, “WASHINGTON POST” BAGHDAD BUREAU CHIEF JOINING US VIA SKYPE TONIGHT. THANKS SO MUCH.>>THANK YOU.>>Sreenivasan: WE’VE PAID A LOT OF ATTENTION IN RECENT YEARS TO MEXICAN AND CENTRAL AMERICAN MIGRANTS ENTERING– OR TRYING TO ENTER– THE UNITED STATES BY CROSSING AMERICA’S SOUTHERN BORDER, BUT THERE’S AN ENTIRELY DIFFERENT COHORT OF MIGRANTS FROM AROUND THE WORLD ATTEMPTING A SIMILAR PASSAGE. AND THESE DAYS, THEY FIND THAT JOURNEY STALLED MORE THAN A THOUSAND MILES AWAY. NEWSHOUR WEEKEND’S SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT NADJA DROST AND VIDEOGRAPHER BRUNO FEDERICO BRING US THIS REPORT FROM TAPACHULA, MEXICO. THIS STORY WAS PRODUCED WITH THE SUPPORT OF THE PULITZER CENTER.>>LIBERTAD! LIBERTAD!>>Reporter: CALLS FOR FREEDOM AND THE CHANCE TO LEAVE WHAT MIGRANTS ARE CALLING AN OUTDOOR PRISON: THE CITY OF TAPACHULA IN SOUTHERN MEXICO. THEY’VE BEEN STUCK HERE FOR WEEKS TO SEVERAL MONTHS, AND THEY WANT OUT.>>(translated): NO ONE IS GOING TO STOP MIGRATION!>>Reporter: BUT THAT’S WHAT MEXICO IS TRYING TO DO: STOP MIGRANTS FROM MOVING NORTHWARD ON THEIR JOURNEY TO THE U.S. AND CANADA. AND WHILE SHIFTS IN MEXICAN AND AMERICAN IMMIGRATION POLICY ARE LARGELY TARGETING CENTRAL AMERICANS, THEY’RE ALSO AFFECTING THOSE FROM OUTSIDE THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE, FROM COUNTRIES AS FAR AS CAMEROON, INDIA, AND PAKISTAN. THEY’RE KNOWN AS “EXTRA- CONTINENTAL MIGRANTS.” WITH NOWHERE TO LIVE, SEVERAL HUNDRED, MOSTLY FROM CENTRAL AFRICA, HAVE BEEN CAMPING OUT IN FRONT OF THE IMMIGRATION DETENTION CENTER. THERE ARE NO BATHROOMS, AND THERE’S NOWHERE TO BATHE. MOST EVERYONE IS HUNGRY; HANDOUTS FROM A CHURCH GROUP JUST AREN’T ENOUGH.>>(translated): WE ARE IN A PRISON HERE.>>(translated): YOU CAN’T GO OUT. YOU CAN’T WORK.>>Reporter: THIS COUPLE AND THEIR TODDLER FROM THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO ARE RESELLING BREAD TO FELLOW MIGRANTS TO GET BY. THEY’RE AFRAID TO USE THEIR REAL NAMES, SO WE’RE CALLING THEM ISAAC AND FRANCOISE. THEY FLED POLITICAL PERSECUTION AFTER AN ANTI-GOVERNMENT MILITIA GROUP PAID ISAAC’S FAMILY A VISIT.>>(translated): THEY GOT ANGRY AND CALLED THEIR COMMANDER, WHO GAVE THEM THE ORDER TO KILL ALL OF US AND SPARE NOBODY.>>Reporter: THE MILITIA KILLED ISAAC’S PARENTS AND TWO BROTHERS, BUT ONE MILITIA MAN WHO KNEW ISAAC HELPED HIM AND HIS FAMILY ESCAPE THE COUNTRY. THEY FLEW TO ECUADOR AND JOINED A ROUTE USED BY THOUSANDS OF EXTRA-CONTINENTAL MIGRANTS WHO USUALLY LAND IN ECUADOR OR BRAZIL, WHERE VISA REQUIREMENTS ARE RELATIVELY LAX. ON THE WAY TO MEXICO, THEY MUST CROSS A THICK, ROADLESS JUNGLE THAT STRADDLES THE BORDER BETWEEN COLOMBIA AND PANAMA CALLED THE “DARIEN GAP.”>>(translated): IT WAS LIKE HELL TO ME. I NEVER THOUGHT I WOULD BE ABLE TO GET OUT OF IT BECAUSE I SAW OTHER FRIENDS DYING.>>Reporter: THEY SPENT 15 DAYS CROSSING JUNGLE AND RIVERS, BUT WHEN THEY MADE IT TO MEXICO, ISAAC AND FRANCOISE HIT A ROADBLOCK. UNTIL RECENTLY, MEXICO HAD LITTLE INTEREST IN STOPPING EXTRA-CONTINENTAL MIGRANTS FROM TRAVERSING THE COUNTRY TO REACH THE U.S. BORDER. BUT THEN, IN THE SUMMER OF 2019, THE U.S. THREATENED MEXICO WITH TRADE TARIFFS IF IT DIDN’T DRASTICALLY STEM THE FLOW OF MIGRANTS. MEXICO CLAMPED DOWN, SENDING 6,000 NATIONAL GUARD TROOPS TO ITS SOUTHERN BORDER. IN EFFECT, THE COUNTRY WAS DOING THE AMERICAN PRESIDENT’S BIDDING, SAYS LAWYER AND ACTIVIST LUIS VILLAGRAN.>>(translated): THIS IS WHERE DONALD TRUMP’S WALL STARTS. FOR A MIGRANT WHO FLEES THEIR COUNTRY, MORE SO FOR ONE CARRYING KIDS, WHO ARE TRYING TO GET BY DAY BY DAY, THEY ARE SEEING THAT TRUMP’S WALL STARTS HERE.>>Reporter: THE NATIONAL GUARD ATTEMPT TO INTERCEPT MIGRANTS WITHOUT DOCUMENTATION CROSSING THE SUCHIATE RIVER INTO MEXICO. SOME GET PAST THE SOLDIERS TO REACH THE CITY, BUT FOR THOSE TRYING TO CONTINUE NORTH FROM TAPACHULA, EVEN MORE BARRIERS AWAIT. BEHIND ME IS ONE OF THE MANY CHECKPOINTS THAT SURROUND THE CITY OF TAPACHULA, WHERE IMMIGRATION OFFICIALS SEARCH VEHICLES AND APPREHEND ANY MIGRANTS AND ASYLUM SEEKERS WHO DON’T CARRY THE NECESSARY PAPERWORK TO CROSS MEXICO. THE CHECKPOINTS ARE PART OF EXPANDED IMMIGRATION ENFORCEMENT THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY, SAYS LUCIANA GANDINI, A PROFESSOR AT THE NATIONAL AUTONOMOUS UNIVERSITY OF MEXICO, WHO COORDINATES A CENTER FOR MIGRATION STUDIES.>>(translated): ON THE ONE HAND, THEY’RE INCREASING ENFORCEMENT AT THE BORDER. BUT THAT’S NOT ENOUGH, SO THEY’RE ALSO IMPLEMENTING A CONTAINMENT STRATEGY IN ORDER TO COMPLY WITH SOME OF THE STRATEGIES THE U.S. IS ASKING FOR.>>Reporter: OVER 13,000 EXTRA-CONTINENTAL MIGRANTS REGISTERED WITH IMMIGRATION AUTHORITIES LAST YEAR THROUGH NOVEMBER. MANY MORE HAVEN’T REGISTERED. MANY DON’T READ OR SPEAK SPANISH, MAKING EVERYTHING FROM NEGOTIATING PRICES TO UNDERSTANDING IMMIGRATION PAPERS CHALLENGING, IF NOT IMPOSSIBLE. THEY TRY TO GET BY HOWEVER THEY CAN. TEMBO YUMBU CUT HAIR FOR 14 YEARS IN HIS NATIVE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO. NOW, HE’S TRANSFORMED THIS PATCH OF PAVEMENT INTO AN OUTDOOR BARBER SHOP.>>(translated): MOST OF MY CLIENTS ARE CONGOLESE, CAMEROONIAN, ANGOLESE, GUINEAN AND MALIAN BROTHERS.>>Reporter: YUMBU’S RAZOR AND PAIR OF SCISSORS HAVE GIVEN HIM THE MEANS TO SUBSIST AND CARRY ON THE LONG JOURNEY FROM CONGO. IT’S TAKEN HIM SEVEN MONTHS SO FAR.>>(translated): BUT THIS IS THE KIND OF TRIP THAT NEVER ENDS. IN ORDER TO NOT OVERTHINK AND FEEL A LOT OF PAIN, THAT’S WHY I’M HERE AND DOING THIS. BUT WE HOPE THAT ONE DAY, WE WILL FIND SOME OPEN DOORS.>>Reporter: EXTRA-CONTINENTAL MIGRANTS TRYING TO RESOLVE THEIR STATUS SAY THEY COME UP AGAINST ADMINISTRATIVE DELAYS AND CONFUSION AT THE IMMIGRATION CENTER.>>(translated): SINCE WE’VE BEEN HERE, MIGRATION AUTHORITIES SAID THEY HAD NO SOLUTION FOR US.>>Reporter: THERE ARE FEW INTERPRETERS, MEANING THEY OFTEN CAN’T UNDERSTAND THEIR OPTIONS. SO, THEY’RE SHUFFLED, WEEK AFTER WEEK, MONTH AFTER MONTH, FROM ONE GOVERNMENT OFFICE TO ANOTHER.>>(translated): YOU THINK THAT THEY WILL GIVE YOU THE DOCUMENTS WHEN YOU GO TO THE APPOINTMENT, BUT IT’S ANOTHER APPOINTMENT.>>(translated): IT’S ALWAYS ANOTHER APPOINTMENT.>>Reporter: MEXICO’S NATIONAL MIGRATION INSTITUTE, WHICH APPLIES MIGRATION POLICY, TURNED DOWN NEWSHOUR WEEKEND’S REQUEST FOR AN INTERVIEW. SO DID THE MINISTRY OF EXTERNAL RELATIONS, WHICH HAS NEGOTIATED AGREEMENTS WITH THE U.S. TO CURB MIGRATION. FOR LAWYER VILLAGRÁN, THE DELAYS MIGRANTS FACE AREN’T JUST A MATTER OF BUREAUCRACY.>>(translated): IN THE CASE OF PEOPLE FROM AFRICA, THEY TELL THEM THEY HAVE TO LEAVE BY THE SOUTHERN BORDER. THEY KNOW THEY WON’T LEAVE, SO THEY’RE STRANDED HERE. THEY’RE IN IMMIGRATION LIMBO.>>Reporter: THE ONLY WAY EXTRA-CONTINENTALS CAN LEGALIZE THEIR STATUS IS TO APPLY FOR ASYLUM OR PERMANENT RESIDENCE TO STAY IN MEXICO, BUT VERY FEW WANT TO STAY. OSAMA MAHYOUB, WHO SAYS HE FLED DEATH THREATS IN HIS NATIVE YEMEN, SPEAKS FOR MANY.>>(translated): I DON’T WANT TO APPLY FOR ASYLUM IN MEXICO. MY GOAL IS TO ARRIVE IN THE U.S.A. HERE IN MEXICO, WE ARE AFRAID. THE GANGS FRIGHTEN ME. THERE ARE A LOT OF THEM. THERE’S A LOT OF MAFIA IN MEXICO.>>Reporter: HE PAYS FOR A SHARED HOTEL ROOM USING MONEY HE EARNED WORKING IN ECUADOR BEFORE HEADING NORTH. THE LONGER HE STAYS, THE QUICKER IT’LL RUN OUT, BUT HE DOESN’T SEE A WAY AROUND IT.>>(translated): I WILL WAIT HERE UNTIL IMMIGRATION AUTHORITIES FIND A SOLUTION WITH THE AMERICANS FOR THE MIGRANTS IN THIS CITY.>>Reporter: BUT MEXICO’S STANCE ON MIGRATION APPEARS ONLY TO BE HARDENING. IN AN OCTOBER SPEECH, IMMIGRATION CHIEF FRANCISCO GARDUÑO ANNOUNCED THE FIRST-EVER DEPORTATION OF EXTRA-CONTINENTAL MIGRANTS, SENDING HOME 300 FROM INDIA. AND HE WARNED OF MORE TO COME.>>(translated): THIS IS A NOTICE FOR ALL TRANSCONTINENTAL MIGRATION, THAT EVEN IF YOU’RE FROM MARS, WE’LL SEND YOU BACK. WE’LL SEND YOU TO INDIA, TO CAMEROON, TO AFRICA.>>Reporter: MEANWHILE, TAPACHULA HAS BECOME A PRESSURE-COOKER.>>(translated): WE’VE BEEN BLOCKED HERE FOR FOUR MONTHS IN TERRIBLE LIVING CONDITIONS WITHOUT FOOD, WITHOUT WORK! WE’VE HAD ENOUGH OF THIS STORY WITH IMMIGRATION AUTHORITIES. THESE PEOPLE ARE DEMONS!>>Reporter: SOME EXTRA- CONTINENTALS HEAD WEST TO THE COAST, JOINING THOSE WHO RESORT TO PAYING SMUGGLERS TO TAKE THEM OUT OF SOUTHERN MEXICO BY SEA. RECENTLY, A BOAT CARRYING 25 CAPSIZED, TRIGGERING MEXICAN SECURITY FORCES TO CARRY OUT A SEARCH AND RESCUE MISSION. ONE CAMEROONIAN WAS FOUND DEAD HERE AFTER FELLOW MIGRANTS HAD TRIED TO RESUSCITATE HIM. ALL TOLD, THE OCEAN WAVES BROUGHT FOUR DEAD CAMEROONIANS TO SHORE. DESPITE THE DANGERS, EXTRA- CONTINENTAL MIGRANTS WILL CONTINUE TO HEAD OUT ON THESE WATERS IF IT’S THE ONLY WAY TO REACH THEIR DESTINATION.>>Sreenivasan: IT’S ESTIMATED THAT 70,000 BABY BOOMERS REACH RETIREMENT AGE EVERY WEEK. BUT LIFE AT RETIREMENT AGE IS NOT WHAT IT USED TO BE, ACCORDING TO NEUROSCIENTIST DANIEL LEVITIN. IN HIS LATEST BOOK, HE EXPLORES WHAT HAPPENS IN THE BRAIN AS WE AGE, AND WHY SOME OF US AGE BETTER THAN OTHERS. NEWSHOUR WEEKEND’S CHRISTOPHER BOOKER RECENTLY SPOKE TO LEVITIN TO LEARN MORE.>>Reporter: DANIEL LEVITIN, A NEUROSCIENTIST AND PROFESSOR EMERITUS OF PSYCHOLOGY AT McGILL UNIVERSITY, HAS WRITTEN EXTENSIVELY ABOUT THE BRAIN. ALSO A MUSICIAN, HE HAS WRITTEN BESTSELLING BOOKS EXAMINING THE EFFECT OF MUSIC ON THE BRAIN, AS WELL AS ABOUT HOW TO THINK “STRAIGHT” IN AN AGE OF INFORMATION OVERLOAD. IN LEVITIN’S LATEST BOOK, “SUCCESSFUL AGING,” HE EXPLORES THE QUESTIONS: WHAT HAPPENS IN THE BRAIN AS WE AGE, AND WHAT ARE THE KEYS TO AGING WELL? YOU SET OUT TO WRITE THIS BOOK, YOU SAID, BECAUSE YOU HAD QUESTIONS OF YOUR OWN. WHAT QUESTIONS WERE YOU LOOKING TO ANSWER?>>I LOOKED AT PEOPLE LIKE MY PARENTS, WHO ARE IN THEIR 80s AND VERY ACTIVE AND ENGAGED. THEY– THEY TIRE ME OUT. (LAUGHS) AND PEOPLE LIKE JANE GOODALL, OR RODNEY CROWELL, STILL ONLY IN HIS 60s BUT I THINK DOING THE BEST WORK OF HIS CAREER. PAUL SIMON, WHO I THINK DID THE BEST WORK OF HIS CAREER IN THE LAST FIVE YEARS. WHAT ARE THEY DOING? WHERE– WHERE DOES THIS COME FROM? I WANTED TO KNOW. I WANTED TO GET SOME OF THAT FOR ME.>>Reporter: HOW HAVE YOUR VIEWS CHANGED ABOUT YOUR OWN AGING PROCESS?>>I’VE COME TO SEE AGING AS NOT INEVITABLY A PERIOD OF DECLINE AND LOSS AND IRRELEVANCE, BUT A PERIOD OF POTENTIALLY RENEWED ENGAGEMENT, ENERGY AND MEANINGFUL ACTIVITIES. GETTING OLDER MYSELF– I’M 62– I’M SPENDING MORE TIME WITH OLDER PEOPLE WHO ARE JUST MARVELOUSLY ENTERTAINING, FULL OF LIFE AND FULL OF ACTIVITY.>>Reporter: IN RESEARCHING THE BOOK, LEVITIN SPENT TIME TALKING ABOUT THE AGING PROCESS TO EVERYONE FROM FORMER SECRETARY OF STATE GEORGE SHULTZ TO JAZZ LEGEND SONNY ROLLINS TO THE DALAI LAMA.>>I THINK THE MAIN SOURCE, MAIN STRENGTH IS THAT I’M BUDDHIST– BUDDHIST MONK. YOU SEE, EVERY DAY IS FILLED WITH PRAYING AND THINKING. MY BODY, SPEECH AND MIND, DEDICATED TO WELLBEING OF OTHER.>>ONE OF THE THINGS THAT EMERGED IN MY RESEARCH IS THAT, AS WE AGE INTO OUR SEVENTIES AND EIGHTIES, WE’RE A LOT BETTER AT SOME THINGS THAN YOUNGER PEOPLE. AND ONE OF THEM IS– IS PATTERN MATCHING. IF YOU GO TO SEE A RADIOLOGIST, YOU WANT A 75-YEAR-OLD RADIOLOGIST– NOT A 35-YEAR-OLD RADIOLOGIST– BECAUSE THEY’VE SEEN PATTERNS. THEY’RE MUCH BETTER AT DETECTING CANCERS.>>Reporter: DOES THE EXPANDED ABILITY TO RECOGNIZE PATTERN, DOES IT MAKE IT HARDER FOR PEOPLE TO CHANGE THEIR VIEWS OR TO MAYBE LOOK AT SOMETHING DIFFERENTLY?>>IT CAN, AND YOU HAVE TO FIGHT THAT. I THINK THAT WE HAVE TO AVOID COMPLACENCY AS WE GET OLDER BECAUSE WE DO TEND TO GET SET IN OUR WAYS. WE TEND TO WANT TO LOOK AT THINGS THE SAME WAY. WE WANT TO GO TO THE SAME RESTAURANT THAT WE KNOW IS GOING TO GIVE US A GOOD MEAL. WE WANT TO HANG OUT WITH THE SAME FRIENDS WHO WE KNOW ARE NOT GOING TO MAKE US FEEL BAD ABOUT OURSELVES. BUT WE HAVE TO FIGHT THAT BECAUSE THE INFLUX OF NEW IDEAS AND CHALLENGING OUR CONVENTIONAL MODES OF THINKING IS IMPORTANT BRAIN FOOD, NOT JUST OUR INDIVIDUAL HEALTH BUT THE HEALTH OF THE LARGER COMMUNITY.>>Reporter: YOUR NUMBER ONE RECOMMENDATION OF YOUR TOP TEN THINGS TO DO, NUMBER ONE WAS “DON’T RETIRE.”>>YEAH. JANE GOODALL SAID THIS. YOU KNOW, SHE SAID, “DON’T RETIRE, KEEP GOING. BUT,” SHE SAID, “IF YOU RETIRE, MAKE SURE YOU HAVE SOMETHING EQUALLY COMPELLING THAT WILL ENGAGE YOU.” YOU KNOW, THAT COULD BE PHILANTHROPY. IT COULD BE… EDUCATION.>>Sreenivasan: FOR MORE WITH DANIEL LEVITIN, WATCH HERE OR ONLINE AT www.pbs.org/newshour.>>Reporter: LET’S TALK ABOUT SLEEP. THERE’S A LOT OF MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT SLEEP AS WE GET OLDER.>>THE MYTH IS, “OH, OLD PEOPLE DON’T NEED AS MUCH SLEEP.” TOTAL MYTH. THE FACT IS, OLD PEOPLE DO NEED EIGHT OR NINE HOURS OF SLEEP. THE DALAI LAMA ATTRIBUTES A LOT OF HIS HEALTH TO NINE HOURS OF SLEEP EVERY NIGHT. BUT AS WE GET OLDER, A LOT OF THE HORMONAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES IN OUR BODIES MAKE OUR BIOLOGICAL CLOCKS HARDER TO KEEP REGULAR. SO, JUST STAYING UP AN HOUR OR TWO LATER WHEN YOU’RE OLDER CAN AFFECT YOU FOR WEEKS. AND SO, GOING TO BED AT THE SAME TIME EVERY NIGHT, WAKING UP AT THE SAME TIME EVERY MORNING, PARTICULARLY AFTER THE AGE OF 75, VERY IMPORTANT.>>Reporter: WHY DO SOME PEOPLE AGE BETTER THAN OTHERS?>>SOME OF ITISGENETIC. SOME OF IT’S ENVIRONMENTAL. IF YOU HAD STRESSORS, EARLY STRESSORS AS A CHILD, THAT’S GOING TO PLAY AGAINST YOUR FORTITUDE AND COMPOSITION. BUT THE GOOD NEWS IS, WE CAN OVERCOME THAT. GENETICS IS NOT A– A PRESCRIPTION. GENETICS IS JUST AN INFLUENCE, LIKE YOUR CHILDHOOD, AND YOU CAN REBUILD YOURSELF.>>Reporter: BECAUSE THAT’S ONE OF THE OTHER KEY POINTS, IS THAT ESSENTIALLY IT’S NEVER TOO LATE.>>YOUCANCHANGE YOURSELF AT ANY AGE. THAT’S– THAT’S THE GOOD NEWS. YOU– YOU CAN LOOK AT YOUR LIFE WHEN YOU’RE 75 AND SAY, “I’M GOING TO DO SOMETHING DIFFERENT,” AND DO IT. IF YOU LOOK ACROSS THE WORLD, ACROSS THE 60 COUNTRIES THAT HAVE BEEN STUDIED, THE PEAK AGE OF HAPPINESS TENDS TO BE ABOUT 82. PEOPLE GET HAPPIER. NOW, THERE’S A NEUROCHEMICAL BASIS FOR THIS. YOUR NEUROCHEMISTRY SHIFTS. BUT THERE’S ALSO KIND OF A PSYCHOLOGICAL AND VERY PRACTICAL BASIS. YOU– YOU REALIZE YOU’VE GOTTEN THROUGH ALL THESE THINGS THAT WERE STRESSING YOU OUT. IF YOU MAKE IT TO 82, YOU KNOW, YOU’VE MANAGED. YOU’RE– YOU’RE OKAY!>>Sreenivasan: FINALLY TONIGHT, AT LEAST SEVEN PEOPLE DIED IN TORNADOES AND SEVERE STORMS THAT SWEPT ACROSS THE SOUTH LAST NIGHT AND TODAY. DAMAGE AND POWER OUTAGES WERE REPORTED ACROSS THE SOUTH AND MIDWEST. THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE PREDICTS HEAVY RAIN AND FLOODING THROUGH TONIGHT, AND ICE STORM WARNINGS ARE IN EFFECT ACROSS THE UPPER MIDWEST AND INTO MAINE. BUT IN PARTS OF THE EASTERN U.S., THERE WERE TEMPERATURES 20 TO 30 DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL TODAY. HERE IN NEW YORK, IT WAS 68 THIS AFTERNOON, A NEW RECORD. THAT’S ALL FOR THIS EDITION OF PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND. I’M HARI SREENIVASAN. THANKS FOR WATCHING. HAVE A GOOD NIGHT. Captioning sponsored by WNET Captioned by Media Access Group at WGBH access.wgbh.org>>PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND IS MADEPOSSIBLE BY:BERNARD AND IRENE SCHWARTZ.SUE AND EDGAR WACHENHEIM III.THE CHERYL AND PHILIP MILSTEINFAMILY.ROSALIND P. WALTER.BARBARA HOPE ZUCKERBERG.CHARLES ROSENBLUM.WE TRY TO LIVE IN THE MOMENT,TO NOT MISS WHAT’S RIGHT INFRONT OF US.AT MUTUAL OF AMERICA, WEBELIEVE TAKING CARE OF TOMORROWCAN HELP YOU MAKE THE MOST OFTODAY.MUTUAL OF AMERICA FINANCIALGROUP, RETIREMENT SERVICES ANDINVESTMENTS.>>WHEN IT COMES TO WIRELESS, CONSUMER CELLULAR GIVES ITS CUSTOMERS THE CHOICE. OUR NO-CONTACT PLANS GIVE YOU AS MUCH OR AS LITTLE TALK, TEXT AND DATA AS YOU WANT. AND OUR U.S.-BASED CUSTOMER SERVICE TEAM IS ON-HAND TO HELP. 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